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Training Dogs with Disabilities

Amanda Fuller had no idea what “double merle” meant four years ago or that it was about to change her life forever. But in 2013, two women happened to know a breeder out of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, whose latest litter included a deaf and vision impaired puppy. Not likely to sell, the breeder planned to put the puppy down, but the two women intervened and posted the puppy as an adoption listing on Facebook. Amanda saw the ad, and by the time the puppy was 7 weeks old she had a new home in Baltimore, Maryland. Amanda named her Keller.

“I had never had a dog with any sort of disability so I had no idea what I was going to do,” says Amanda. But Keller had enough of her vision that after researching dogs with disabilities online, she started using sign language to experiment with teaching Keller basic obedience. Amanda quickly realized her all-white Australian shepherd  was a lot smarter than she thought. At 4 months, Keller started doing agility work and trick training, and less than four years later Amanda is working toward their Expert Trick Title. “She just learned how to roll herself in a blanket,” Amanda laughs. “She knows how to play the piano, put a basketball in a hoop, ring a desk bell. We’re working on pushing a shopping cart next.”

But learning tricks is far from the most important work this dynamic duo have achieved. The reason the breeder was going to euthanize Keller is because she’s a “double merle” -- something most people haven’t ever heard of. So let’s get scientific for just a quick minute here: many dog breeds include a coat with a marbled pattern (and it’s AKC standard in several breeds) -- picture an Australian shepherd  or border collie and you’ve got the right image -- that marble pattern is created by a “merle pattern gene mutation” during conception. The responsible way to breed for a marbled coat is to take one parent with a marbled coat and one parent with a solid coat. In doing so, each offspring will have a 50 percent chance of inheriting the merle pattern gene and a 50 percent chance of having a solid coat. If instead a breeder uses two parents with a marbled pattern, each offspring will have a 50 percent chance of inheriting the marbled coat, a 25 percent chance of having a solid coat, and a 25 percent chance of becoming a double merle, which often makes the puppies white, lacking pigmentation, and at a higher risk for disabilities, including hearing loss and eye defects. Many breeders that may be uninformed about safe breeding practices end up with double merles, and oftentimes these puppies are euthanized or dumped.

“Obviously you can’t just look at a dog and say it’s a double merle just because it’s white,” Amanda cautions. “Most of the time they are white -- that’s a good indicator -- but if you know it also came from two merle parents as well there’s a good chance it’s a double merle.” Upon learning this, Amanda set out on a mission with her friend Rose Adler, who has a double merle named Braille. They created the nonprofit “Keller’s Cause” and set up a website and Facebook page to help educate dog lovers and breeders about the dangers of double merle breeding as well as to provide free resources and training advice geared towards dogs with disabilities. They also attend many dog-related expos and trade shows to get the word out in person -- a full listing of their upcoming events can be found here.

“We realized there are a lot of people in the world have dogs like Keller and have no idea how to train them,” says Amanda. She also stresses the amazing bond created with your dog through training and agility work, and that it’s no different with a deaf or blind dog than one without disabilities. Check out Keller’s Cause online to support the organization and help spread the word, and while you’re there enjoy a little work break by watching some of the training videos -- then share widely!


  • Lauren Prince on

    I’m so happy to learn about Keller—& happy to see Rex specs supporting his cause. These training videos will be really helpful for my own little adventure dog, a 1 yo deaf French Bulldog.
    Thanks so much!

  • Cindy on

    I have seen a lot of these in dogs and other species. Be watching for epilepsy

  • Rachel on

    My Catahoula Bulldog is a double merle – bilateral deaf & compromised vision. She wears Rex Specs to prevent any eye issues from UV rays. Doggles never fit her right so she hated them. Thank goodness for Rex Specs! They fit her & she will wear them. We follow Keller’s story & were thrilled to see Rex Specs do a shoutout about Double Merles. They should be a target audience for you. Thank you for your product!

  • Betty on

    The more knowledge we all can bring to every breeder and common person about double merles and just special needs pets in general is a good thing! I too own a deaf aussie and he is the best dog there is. Sure challenges happen but a lot of TLC and love gets you through it! I hope one day that double merles won’t happen. True I love my boy but not all are as lucky as him! I would love the day we didn’t see so many needing homes or care from how ignorant or stupid humans can be! 100% preventable but not 100% person preventable sadly!

  • Adrian on

    this is proof of what I alway say to humans, dogs, even defective ones, are put here on this earth to make us humans better! We need these angels in order to improve our souls!


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How To Measure

Measure the circumference of your dog's muzzle where you expect the goggle to land on their nose - usually around the back of their mouth.

Measure the head circumference where you expect the goggle to land on the forehead - typically an inch or so behind the eyes.